Problem (problem) is gap between the goal system and the actual system conditions, with the understanding why other systems failed to achieve the goals that the system has been determined previously. To know the things that have been what caused the failure of the system, the analyst should conduct an investigation before taking action to improve the system. With the investigation, an analyst will better understand the problem and the system flow more depth, even detect the problem is known but the problem still describe the size of the course.

Many reports in the detection problem may not actually be real or cannot be solved. This may be because:

·         The goal is too ideal

•        Lack of resources and / or attitudes

•        Measurement system is less accurate

•        The purpose of the system is lagging

•        The difference between the ideal system and the system temporarily

In solving the problem, should provide an explanation of

·         Formulation system that is running through the investigation in detail

·         Obtain consensus that the ideal system

·         Develop several alternatives to reduce the difference between the ideal system with a system that runs

·         Selecting the best alternative

Task start point is 1 to 4 will take a very long time including the necessary costs.

The objective of the investigation is to stabilize or show the actual problem occurred while analysts as a way to understand the system in depth.


Conduct investigations in several problems that often appear are:

o   Time

Analysts lack of resources (resource) time, so just do some investigative activities. Usually when dealing with the issue of cost is required.

o   Cost

Often the costs incurred related to the length of time for activities investigation, so that management will provide cost limits

o   Finance

Manager information systems tend Junior told analysts that do not yet have the technical expertise or knowledge is sufficient, so that will impact on the results of investigations that are less deep, or more mature

o   Politics

Management or the parties may distribute certain issues which aim to restrict the investigation activities.

o   Mix of There are parties

Who try to intervene or manage investigation in activities that will disrupt or cause a disruption?

Results of the investigation is a recommendation that includes, among others, the following:

a)      Not to take any action because it found no problems. This can happen as they may in the preliminary report, the problem contrived so that at the time of the investigation is done-the problem does not happen or was not found.

b)      Conducting system maintenance for problems that small. Maintenance of the system that made every day (short period) will help minimize the problems that appear in so fast and to always be better controlled.

c)      Improve the ability or skills in the run or use the information system.

d)     Consider modifications to the system in total, so the need to replace it with the thought that the new system.

e)      Placing the plan going into the development system that is immediately done.


a.       Listen, do not lecture.

If you know all the answers, you certainly will not conduct investigations. So that in the investigation should provide enough time for the management or the user to explain in clear and complete, and system analysts do not dominate discussion.

b.      Do not provide solutions to the initial problem.

This means do not try showing ideas to solve the problem, before the investigation is completed all the activities conducted, so that the solutions are part-part.

c.       Comparing the story (compare stories).

Different people mean different views of the same problem, so the need to involve the supervisor and subordinate in providing a clear view of the problem and can be trusted. Should not hear from one source so that there is only one view (opinion). When the user has a difference of views, should find the differences and then seek the views that have similarities.

d.      Note the reluctance responses (look for reluctant responses).

Reluctance to give responses that indicate something is hidden. Too many problems the system  can also causes confusion, so not able to explain in full.

e.       Note the logical inconsistency problems (probe for logical inconsistencies).

Inconsistency is the logical termination of the data flow where data is missing, or suddenly appear certain data. Some things related to this issue:

• There are data its inserts but no output (black hole).

• There are outputs (output), but no data its inserts (miracles).

f.       Notice the impact you (observe your effect).

Given the differences of when you attend and when you do not attend. Rating referred directly to the internal probe. External probe, while the assessment is made known by anyone without (searching external materials), such as by analyzing reports, history the problems tools, and sources of other secondary investigation.

g.      Require hard work, giving rise to boredom (expect hard, boring work).

Be a detective professionals and patient in dealing with problems in the system bertahap.dan sustainable.

h.      Avoid problems politic (avoid politics).

Mission analyst system is not the judge the facts (your mission is fact, not judgment).


In general, techniques of investigation include 2 activities, namely:

a. Directly

Namely to find out of directly what is happening in the environment. There are three techniques to investigate directly, that is with:

•        Questionnaire.

This technique is very appropriate, if in the investigation have the time and cost constraints. Although responded to get through from blank fields. This is the best of the questionnaire as a document that can show differences that occurred in the respondents.

•        Frequently asked questions.

These activities require time and special expertise. Not everyone can do it successfully. Interview questions can be used for the sequence in depth in addition to more flexible with the condition field.

•        Observation.

It is a strong internal probe. Sit together with the system by making observations with a more specific question. Why you do this activity? Or where this document will be moved? Each question may be able to demonstrate problem-solving mysterious.

b. Indirectly

Activities that can be done quickly and not visible from the operational personnel, so that the outside can see or something that is hidden from the user community. This activity will dominate at the beginning of the SDLC activities, to further deepen internal probe.

•        Flow of the procedure.

Operational procedures are the means (vehicles) for new employees understand their work and experience to handle employee problems. If the procedure does not flow properly, the system information cannot be operated correctly as well. Use the system flowchart for the path information as explanation Operating procedures. If there is any problem in procedure, problems may arise in the actual operations.

•        Reviewing documents (document review).

Is to find and gather important documents (critical document). If problems occur in many customer orders, collect the original source documents from customer orders, which used as its data-entry, interactive screen format, transaction detail, summary and report errors that occur.

•        Sampling (sampling).

In this case, for example, you need to improve the quality of data on a network, then you must have the data to improve the quality of the network, and for that you need to have the data on it that can be taken where randomly.

•        Tabular (Tabular tools)

Also called the matrix, the check list (checklists) to find the conflict (discrepancies) in the transaction flow.


Determine system performance at this time will have difficulty if the company does not have a standard performance measurement system. Unfortunately, companies tend not to update (to update) documentation systems that are running. Therefore, analysts refine the document during the investigation system.

Description of the system includes a clear explanation at this time:

a.       Inputs (inputs)

b.      Outputs (outputs)

c.       Files (files)

d.      Data elements (data elements)

e.       Volume of transactions and documents action (action document and transaction volume)

f.       Data flow diagrams (data flow diagrams)




Stage of intensive interaction between the systems analyst with the end user where the system shows the development team expertise to get feedback and trust so that the user get a good participation.

–          The 4 Goals achieved:

•        Explain the complete system

•        Describe the ideal information system

•        Bringing information system to the ideal conditions at this time with attention to resource constraints

•        Provide a stimulus to the user confidence in system development

–          Method

•        FAQ

•        Questioner

•        Observation

•        Procedure analysis

•        Observation document

–          Resource constraints

•        Time

•        Money

•        Expertise

•        Technology

•        External Factors

–          Document the needs analysis

•        Referral analysis: Relationships with end users, watch process, problems in data collection

•        User Requirements: Requirements actual, reporting requirements, training needs and the influence of the new system

•        obstacle System: Explaining the cost and time constraints, expertise, technology, and external factors

•        Document the form of data collection instruments, statistical consensus, the logical flow of data and physic, data elements in the initial data dictionary.


–          How do I approach the condition of the system at this time with the condition of the ideal system?

•        Create an alternative to solve the problem of information system

•        Alternative is best applied wisely

–          Options Strategies

•        Distributed versus centralized processing, change the decision from the information to the centralized data processing end user Decentralized responsibility center

•        Integrated versus dispersed database, the system designer must consider the data are entered in the data base and the entrance to the File

•        Surround System Strategy of Development, Environment around important strategy in the case of company takeovers because the information system of other companies may vary with the company at this time.

–          Options Tactic

Selection is done before the design operational

Designing Operational Options can be grouped into

•        Input

·         Online Vs Off Line Data Entry

·         Keyed Vs Machine Readable Data Entry

·         Centralized Vs Decentralized Data Entry

•        Processing

·         Batch Vs Real-time record update

·         Sequential Vs Direct Access to records

·         Single Vs Multiple Users update of records

•        Output

·         Traditional Vs Turn Around Documents

·         Structured Vs based Inquiry reports



–          Compare Tactic: System comparison based on the costs and benefits are relative; There are 3 ways said system A system is superior to the other if:

·         A cost is lower than B, and the benefits of both

·         A cost is lower than B and A yield advantage of more than B

·         A and B have the same but the cost advantage generated a lot more.

–          Some Compares Method System

·         Break Even point Analysis

·         Payback Period

·         discounted payback period

·         Internal Rate of Return


–          Cost categories

o   Hardware

o   Software

o    People

o    Suppliers

o    Telecommunications

o    Physical sites

–          Cost Details

Comparing the cost of information systems through the life of the system, analysts project how cost changes for the future and there are 3 models cost information system, namely Linear, and exponentially Step Function

–          Cost information system can occur only once and can also occur on an ongoing basis.

o   Cost of information systems that occur once only cost that is onetime and development costs that occur during the development of the system.

o   Cost of information systems that occur on a continual basis are recurring cost and operational cost where the cost of this is the case when the operating system information every day.


–          Qualitative factors that lead the performance information system that both of them

o   Reducing the level of error

o   Reduce the time to fix errors

o   Reducing the response time from the workstation alternative

o   Accelerating the provision of information

o   Increase the security system

o   have update the source record is active

o   Increase the satisfaction of the


o   Consumer Satisfaction

o   Level sales increased

o   Commitment of consumers and vendors

o   The information product marketing


o   Make a short presentation

o   Reduce the techniques detailed explanation

o   clearly presentation with visual aids

o   If using a model using a tool such as a laptop so that more informative

o   Emphasize the benefits of the proposed system with some information that there are alternative suitable conditions experienced by the company.


o   If the company decided to develop the information system, the department will do the next process, namely Design System.

o   If the System Development and Life Cycle (SDLC) will be terminated.

o   Often can found problems with the system and the study and top management will usually ask for the fulfillment of the re-study system.

o   Model can describes some of the stages of the repeated and sometimes the information will make a decision before the repeat stage system of study.

o   With the alternative, the decision to repeat a previous phase or SDLC is not Go – No-Go Decision.


Reference : (in bahasa) (in bahasa)

Agus Sanjaya, Slide Presentation.