The importance of developing information systems

Development of the system means a system set up a new, to change the old system as a whole or improve the existing system. This is caused by several factors, namely:

1.      There is a problem in the old system, among other

a.       Irregularity : irregularity in the old system this does not cause the system to function optimally.

b.      Growth organization : which caused the growth of the organization the development of a new system, such as the information needs of the area, volume data processing, etc. has been increasing, therefore the old system is not effective anymore because it already cannot meet these needs organization.

2.      To seize opportunities

With such an information system organization will be able to seize the opportunity to compete in – opportunities that exist. For example: get a new market such as the bid to participate in the tender as viewed from the previous performance, improve services to customers such as at a cafe to provide free internet voucher when already playing a few hours in the cafe.

3.      There is instructions

Preparation of a system will be affected by external factors instructions of organization, for example: customers who to queue at the checkout that allows them not so saturated and shopping, this complaint is the organization must change the way of payment at the checkout for example by using RFID which enables customers only through at the checkout and everything is counted.

 

Third case above is also the goal of the development of a system. A system will be developed to overcome all the problems that arise, to get every opportunity available, and fulfill the instructions given in both in and outside the company environment.

Organization Expectations after Implementing A New System In An Organization

a.       Performance (performance)

Performance improvement that the new system to be more effective. Performance can be measured from the throughput and respond time. Throughput means the amount of work that can be done at a certain time. Response time is the average time the pending transaction between the two plus the response time to respond to the job.

For example: a shop that was using a manual bookkeeping which is in the search for the previous year certainly will be very time consuming and cannot be real time, but with the system information that can be done in real time.

b.      Information (information)

Organizations get all the information accurately and quickly.

For example: The making of a report that the organization can be issued in a certain period.

c.       Economy (economic)

The new system is expected to increase the benefits or advantages to the company so that it also expected a decline to the cost of going.

For example: In a supermarket, of course, the stock has very much, with the manual this is sure to need very many employees but with uses information system we can reduce expenditure for payment employees.

d.      Control (control)

From the new system, we can do to control everything from within the organization.
For example: in a supermarket now in controlling the goods using the barcode and the latest is to use RFID, so that it can be in control.

e.       Efficiency

Efficiency this related to how a company utilizes the resources available with the – well

f.       Service

With the new system, companies can improve service to customers.
For example: Internet Banking, which can be accessed from anywhere without the need to queue the bank teller to do a transaction.

 

 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES
some principles to be considered by system developers are:

a.       System management

System developed for the purpose of management, so that future systems must be able to support the needs of management

b.      System is a large investment

Information system is identical with the use of technology, so it requires a large capital to develop it. So every investment capital should consider 2 things, namely:

·         All alternatives should be investigated in order to minimize the opportunity cost. Several alternatives should be in the investigation to determine the most profitable alternative.

·         Must be the best investment value, said new investment profitable if the value has. That is the benefit or result greater than the cost to obtain it. Cost benefit analysis or cost analysis Effectiveness can be used to determine whether the project is worth investigation or not

c.       System developed need educated people who

In this case the relevant person must not educate about the system, but that person can do on the job training to run the system.

d.      Stages in the development of the system

At this stage a planning required to achieve maximum employment as a method to apply SDLC Waterfall and other methodology.

e.       Development of the system does not need Ascending

At this stage we do not have to wait another plan because we can make with the same time.

f.       Do not be afraid to cancel the project
In this case means we are allowed to provide the advice or input when a project is not feasible in the more developed or continued, and if necessary cancel the project directly.

g.      Documentation

This is necessary to do in the build or develop a system, because on the day in the future can use as reference in the renewal system.

 

 

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE

Waterfall Method

In the process of planning a system there are several methods you can use one of them is a waterfall, which is the first system is:

–          Conduct analysis requirement from the user, namely understanding the nature of the system will be built.

–          Analysis of system design that will be created, in this phase of the system focused on the structure of the data to be in the adoption, interface design, and detail algorithm.

–          At the design stage to translate into computer language that is understandable and start building the system. After the system has been completed then the process is done the continue

–          Testing at this stage in the test system and sought bug . When in the testing stage is a good system can then be implemented directly.

–        The last stage is the stage system is maintenance. Waterfall model is the only recurring maintenance phase only.

 

 Iterative  Method
In the Iterative Model are almost the same as the phases of the waterfall, but in this model is to analyze the stage when the error occurred in the system that was made when the need to fix it will be repeat of the planning process and proceed with the next stages.


                   

Spiral Method

This method is the analysis of risk. If the risk analysis to provide results that is not bound to the needs, the development of this system can be stopped. There are 6 phases, namely:

–          Communications customer, communication must be built between the developer effectively with customers to determine the needs of the maximum.

–          Planning, defining the resources, time limit and project information related other.

–          Analysis of risk, determine the risks that will occur during the development of the system.

–          Engineering, create one or more applications to represent the system works.

–          Construction and launch of the stages required for the construction, test, install and provide training to customers.

–          Evaluate customers, to obtain feedback from customers to the system are made.

        

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DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM APPROACH

There are several approaches to develop a system that is

View from methodology used namely:

  1. The classical approach is called the classical or traditional approach conventional approach is the approach in the development of systems that follow the stages in the life cycle without a system provided with the tools and techniques are adequate. On this approach, there are problems, namely:

Problems: the development of hard, expensive treatment, the possibility of error, success is less assured, the problems in the implementation of

  1. It is a structured approach to the development of the new system is equipped with several tools and techniques so that the result was successful. Through this approach, complex problems can be solved in the organization and results of the system will be easy to maintain, flexible, and more satisfied, have good documentation, on time and in accordance with the budget cost of development, can improve productivity and quality will be better

 

View from the targets achieved, namely:

a.       The piece is an approach that emphasizing on an application or activities regardless of the overall goals of the organization.

b.      The approach is a system approach emphasizing that the achievement of overall objectives and see the system as a whole is unity.

 

Views of how to determine the needs of the system are:

a.       Ride-down approach (bottom-up), this approach starts from the bottom of the operational level, this is a discrete classical approach. This approach is also known by the term data-analysis

b.      Top-down approach (top-down), this approach starts from the top-level planning and strategy is a discrete structured approach, this approach is also known to the decision-analysis

 

Views of how to develop are:

  1. System-comprehensive approach, this approach to develop the system simultaneously and comprehensively. Is a discrete approach to classical
  2. Modular approach, this approach to solve a complex system into parts that simple. System to be developed on time, it’s easy to be understood and maintained. Is a discrete approach to structured

 

Views of technology, namely:

  1. The far-jump (great-loop approach), this approach to develop the system simultaneously using advanced technology but high-risk and spend a lot of cost.
  2. Developing approaches (evolutionary approach), this approach to apply advanced technology to specific applications. Developed for the needs, and cost-effective and can follow the development of technology.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY

 

• What is the methodology?

– Methods and procedures used in science

• What is the method?

– A systematic way to grind

  • What is the algorithm?

– Sort-sequence of procedures to solve a problem

 

 

CLASSIFICATION METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

 

• Functional decomposition

–          Emphasizing the system subsystem solutions

–          Example: HIPO, Stepwise refinement, iterative stepwise refinement, information hiding

• Data-oriented

–          Emphasizes the characteristics of the data processed

–          Data-flow oriented: modules according to the type of data elements

–          Data-oriented structure: the structure of input and output

·         Prescriptive
Usually provided by the manufacturer of the software

 

 

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT TOOLS

• Shaped graph: HIPO, SADT, Jackson’s diagram, and other

• Tools that use the chart:

–          Activity charting: describes the activities, for example: Gant chart, flowchart, etc.

–          Layout charting: describes the layout

–          Personal relationship charting: describes the relationship of personnel, for example: organization charts, work distribution chart

 

TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM

• Technical project management for > scheduled project, for example: CPM and pert

• Technical > find facts and decide to collect data or facts

–          Interview

–          Observation

• Technical analysis of cost or benefit > cost and cost-benefit analysis Effectiveness

• Technical meetings run

• Technical inspection

 

ANALYSTS AND PROGRAMMERS

•         Analyst system: study of the problems and determine the needs of the system to identify solutions

•         programmers: write a program code based on the building design is created by the analyst

•         Analysts duty system bridge the knowledge gap that occurs between the user and system programmers